Regional Financial Management with Knowledge Based Management

There is a strong relationship between fiscal decentralization with devolusi (Manor, 1999; Humes IV, 1991; MacKintosh & Roy, 1999; Fiscal Policy Resource Center, 2001). Fiscal decentralization, which means that the government submit a superior influence over budget decisions and subordinate to the government expenditure, there should didahului by political decentralization. Decentralization without fiscal decentralization and political decentralization difficult to realize the sincere, truly able to reflect the interests and aspirations of the region. fiscal decentralization requires the existence of accountability to the community and institutions in the region rather than to superiors outside the area.

Instead, devolusi also requires the existence of fiscal decentralization to sustain self-reliance of local governments in regulating and managing the functions of diembannya. There are three resources that should be able to run by the local government to achieve its intended purpose, namely the management and top financial officer, and the political support.
The ability of local governments to provide public services is highly dependent on financial capability (Humes IV, 1991, 235). Without money, local governments can not pay employees, supplies and equipment, and various contract services, and so forth. Fiscal decentralization and devolusi looks like two different sides of a coin the same currency so that fiscal decentralization requires the devolusi, and likewise vice versa. In this framework devolusi, the fiscal decentralization associated with the two main things, namely autonomy in deciding the area of expenditure in order to hold public services and meet public needs, and self-reliance in the area have income to pay for the expenditure (Norton, 1994: 71-2; Smith, 1985: 99-109). Financial management in the areas of effective management associated with essentially two things are the income and expenditure areas.
REVENUE SOURCE REGION.
The ability of the region in providing services to the community is very dependent on the ability of funding. In many countries, financial resources of this area is always a polemic because there are differences in the distribution of income between the regions with the central government. Areas feel that the source of the funds that it has inadequate and accused the central government are reluctant to share revenues. If this happens, the condition is not conducive to the revitalization of local governance. Therefore, it is necessary to first understand the various types of local income sources. Humes IV (1991: 236-7) revealed that, in principle, financial resources that have three regions, namely: locally raised revenue (Origin Region Revenue ), transferred or Assigned income (Transfer of Central Government), and loans (loans).
Original Regional Income is income that is determined and collected locally. This type of income should be the main source of income for the area. There are three categories that fall into this type of income that includes local taxes, levies and fines, the company earnings and the region. Local tax is seen by many as the main type of the area. Generally, the central government determine tax which can be adopted by local governments. In many countries, legislation also set limits for the levies and provide power to the central government to review.

How to tax collection at the local level in various countries differ from one another. However, there are several criteria that can be footing the local tax evaluation of this (Norton, 1994: 73-4). The criteria are: equity, collectability, efficiency, taxes should be met by beneficiaries of services, a tax's Behavioral effects, buoyancy or elasticity, immobility of the tax base, and perceptibility and accountability, as well as compatibility with other taxes. Based on the criteria of this tax can be collected from the community.
To two categories of income tax is the original cost (fee), penalties (fines), and the license (license). Source of income is tied to the willingness to pay for a service that feel. Local government levy on the cost of various services and licenses provided. Examples of entry to this category is the right to sell beverages, food, entertainment, to run a bicycle, motor vehicles, to use city facilities or parks, fishing, selling, and so forth. Voluntary donations are also possible as a source of local income.
Third category of income is the original area of the utility companies and local (earnings from public utilities and Enterprises). Company revenue through the imposition costs (user charges) for services that given. There are several things that must be considered in determining the amount of the cost of this, namely: equity, revenue stability, Flexibility, ease of administration, and public acceptance (Pierce & Rust, 1991: 394-5). In principle, this charge plays the role of fiscal and regulatory form of revenue collection and manage service requests with curb violations that often occur in the public services that are free of charge. Regulatory functions is very important through this charge as one of the steps to avoid catastrophe with (tragedy of the commons) without the use of the free public goods. (see Hardin, 1968; Ostrom, 1990).

There are four forms of regional management companies which usually operate to perform the functions above, ie, the form: a single community, joint ownership, or multipurpose special district, and independent authority (Pierce & Rust, 1991: 407-9). Various forms of this type of service reflects, environmental regulations, and the sweep and scope of the market. Effective management of the company depends on this direction and control operations under a single administrator to run the functions of the management instructions defined by the authorities.
In the last few times, many local governments increasingly depend on increased funding or assistance to be transferred by the central government. This phenomenon triggered by political economy. The causes can be seen from the various tasks that we are provided by the central government to regions, or increasing revenue through the central tax revenue and the other, and the increasing lack of local resources to meet the increasing needs of public service. Income transfers include: sharing, assistance and direct budget allocations.
For the results (revenue sharing) refers to the funds collected on behalf of local government and transferred to him. The central government usually collect taxes (in some cases, local governments can also do this). Given to a certain percentage of the area in general, nationally defined, and in some cases the local government may request additional percentage. With this tax is divided on the basis both by origin and by formula (which takes into account various factors such as population, area, donated services and needs). Formulation of this is usually the result of political negotiations, and local governments strive to obtain the most beneficial formula.
Assistance (Grants) is usually also the main source of income for local governments in many countries (Bird, 2000; Humes IV, 1991; Wilson & Game, 1994; Shah, 1994). The term of the grants is also often used subsidies or subventions. There are three main reasons for the use of this type of assistance (Humes IV, 1991: 239) namely: to increase local income sources, and to meet the needs of over-or income from a limited area, and to improve the program and put in certain controls for the program.

In addition to these three reasons, Wilson & Games (1994: 144-5) said two of the fundamental reasons for this assistance, namely: compensation and persuasi. Compensation given that local governments can provide basic services to meet the particular interests of the community. Persuasi motif can be seen as central to the desire to control or influence some aspects of the area. Help can be used to increase expenditure in a particular service, for example, or to emphasize the minimum standards, or support the council to implement central government policies insiatif, and in general to drive so that the regions do not turn to the other. At the core of this goal can be achieved through various types of assistance that can be divided in the form of: first, non-matching transfers that can be divided in the form of a specific (conditional) block grant and (unconditional) grant; second, matching the transfer can be divided into open-ended matching grants and closed-ended matching grants, and the third is the deficit grants (although the last one is no longer recommended). This distinction, as expressed by both Devas (1988) and Davey (1988).
Form of income transfer is the third direct budget allocation (direct budget allocations). In communist countries, the local government is an integral part of the national government, and anggarannyapun is an integral part of the national budget. Actual funds that have not such a transfer but the allocation between the intra-government organizations. The provision of such funds in ways that provide opportunities for limited administrative decision of the local government.
Lending (Borrowing or DSL) is the third source of funding for local governments and is an alternative way to finance the capital investment area (Humes IV, 1991; Norton, 1994; World Development Report, 1988). This investment can be used to finance the development of roads, bridges, dams, multipurpose buildings, water facilities, and others that are difficult to be fulfilled by local governments through existing sources of income. This loan can also be done by the local government to close the budget deficit.

GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES
Decentralization of fiscal authority is also concerning the decentralization of decision-making about the expenditure of the government in order to meet the needs of the community (expenditure assignment). World Bank (1988) reveal that the authority is required so that local governments were able to conduct a public expenditure management right, which has the following characteristics: (a) he is able to adequately control the overall income and expenditure, and (b) the right to allocate resources to the public in various sectors and programs, and (c) ensure that government agencies operate as efficiently as possible (Bird, 2000: 5).
Local income used to defray the expenses. Meanwhile, the need for the expenditure must be met by local income. See behind the reciprocal relationship between the two aspects, the fiscal decentralization can not ignore or emphasize one aspect only. Aspects as important as income is pengeluran area. This expenditure must be made by various regions in order to finance the activities or functions which the responsibilities. There are five roles that must be played by government in managing the affairs of all kinds of authority, or (Premchand, 1999: 57-64). Roles include the role of service provider, as a service buyer, as the body of the fund, as coordinator of public service provision, and as a regulator. Implementation of all options or role requires funds to be issued by local governments.

In practice, the role of various governments in the provision of public services can take place in the top two categories in the form as expressed by Norton (1994: 67-70), namely: direct and indirect Provision or delegated management of service. The first category in fact put the government as direct provider of public services with a range of variations such as the provision by government agencies, the state company, partnership or other body that is directly under the control and funded by the government. Category to put the two on the fact the government as regulator (regulator) while public services can be done by private, public, or other voluntary agencies. The usual way in the second category are: concessions, contracting out, regulation and so forth.
To finance the government's role and form of provision that must be held by the government may need to be translated in the budget area. Type of expenditure in the budget area can be divided into the two, namely current expenditure or also known as revenue expenditure and capital expenditure (Wilson & Game, 1994: 134). Current expenditure is the daily expenditure of local governments is needed to ensure that the public service still in progress. Expenditures include: salaries and wages of employees, school books, office equipment, and so forth. Capital expenditure is expenditure that results in a long-term assets. This expenditure is often expensive, but the benefits after the fiscal year running. An example of this is the purchase of land, construction and road building, major equipment such as cars, machinery, computers and so forth.

Main considerations that must be observed by both central and local government is not all of the better public services are all held in one of these levels of government. Certain public services better organized by the central government while the other held by the local government. with the consideration of this ease of determining the expenditure of public service which is better in desentralisir.
Shah (1994) revealed some of these considerations, such as: the provision of efficient public services, efficiency, fiscal, regional equity (horizontal), the role distributif the public sector, the provision of goods semi-private, with preservation of internal market, economic stabilization, and power expenditure. All these considerations are the basis for the pelimpahan responsibility of public service to a particular area. Study, Shah (1994), Norton (1994), Bird (2000) have revealed that the type of public service by almost all regions, there are species in which either by central or local government, and there is also a type of public service by the central government .

The tendency to mendesentralisir expenditure is based on the subsidiarity principle (Fiscal Policy Resource Center, 2001). This principle suggests that government services should be provided at the lowest level of government that is able to provide public goods and services efficiently. This principle is successful in the situation when the region where the power of the government felt the uniform limits of the government at every level of government. Subsidiarity principle is suggested three types of activity that is best when held by the central government, namely:
(1) the provision of public goods and services that benefit the nation as a whole,
(2) policy redistribusi income or social,
(3) the government activity that includes SPILLOVER eksternalitas or between regions.
Based on this principle, the government subnasional will not be effective in the policy redistribusi income because: first, the nature of natural subnational the government can not complete the income differences between regions, and second, households and companies will move from the rich jurisdiction involved in the distribution of income. In addition, it can be seen that the government will produce subnasional level of public service that is not efficient if the benefit or cost SPILLOVER.

Outside of the third type of activity, this principle is suggested to run by the government, especially the lowest subnasional. Responsibility expenditure (expenditure responsibility) this can be a responsibility to provide, pay, and certain government functions meregulasi of authority. However, not all types of public services can be better managed by a particular jurisdiction is possible only because of the occurrence of cooperation between local governments to hold it in an efficient, effective, and responsive to the needs and interests of each community.

In a very advanced country, the loan can be obtained through banks or the private sector. In developing countries, local governments difficult to obtain access to sources of capital, or if they can do the level of interest rates are difficult to reach tribe. As a result, local governments in developing countries, especially in rural areas, it is difficult to obtain capital development so that the development of small capital. Because this is the case, you can set up a central credit institution provides loans to local governments in order to obtain capital construction. These institutions can be (mainly) controlled by the central government, by local governments, or by both.
Study, Norton (1994) reveal that some methods of loans held in European countries. Methods are:
(1) loan funds from internal sources (internal funds).
(2) loan measure (temporary borrowing) from the money market (money market).
(3) bonds (bonds issues).
(4) Expenditure shares (stock issues).
(5) lease (lease arrangements).

Reference :
Barton, D. L. 1995. Wellsprings of knowledge : building and sustaining the sources of innovation. Boston : Harvard Business School Press.
Bird, R.M. 2000. “Intergovernmental fiscal relations : universal principles, local applications.” Working paper. Atlanta : International Studies, School of Policy Studies, Georgia StateUniversity.
Boadway, R., Roberts, S., & Shah, A. 1994. “The reform of fiscal systems in developing and emerging market economies : a federalism perspective.” Policy research working paper.Washington : The World Bank.
Buckley, P.J., & Carter, M.J. 2000. “Knowledge management in global technology markets : applying theory to practice”. Long Range Planning, Vol. 33.
Davey, K. 1988. “The Development impact of fiscal transfer to local and regional governments”, dalam Prantilla, B. (ed) Financing local and regional development in developing countries : selected country experience. Nagoya : United Nations Centre for Regional Development.
Devas, N. 1988. “System of allocation of government funds to local and regional governments”, dalam Prantilla, B. (ed) Financing local and regional development in developing countries : selected country experience. Nagoya : United Nations Centre for Regional Development.
Fiscal Policy Resource Center, 2001. “An introductory overview of intergovernmental fiscal relations” dalam Principles of Fiscal Decentralization. Atlanta : the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
Hamel, G., Prahalad, C.K. 1994. Competing for the Future. Massachusetts : Harvard BusinessSchool Press.
Hardin, G. 1968. “The tragedy of the commons”, dalam Science 162 : 1243-8.
Humes IV, S. 1991. Local governance and national power : a worldwide comparison of tradition and change in local government. New York : Harvester.
Huseini, M. 1999. “Mencermati misteri globalisasi : menata-ulang strategi pemasaran internasional Indonesia melalui pendekatan resource-based”. Pidato Pengukuhan Guru Besar UI, 25 September.
Mackintosh, M., & Roy, R. 1999. “Introduction : economic decentralization, issues of theory and policy” dalam Mackintosh, M., & Roy, R. Economic decentralization and public management reform. Cheltenham : Edwar Elgar.
Manor, J. 1999. The Political Economy of Democratic Decentralization. Washington : The World Bank.
Mawhood, P. 1983. Local Government in the Third World : the Experience of Tropical Africa.Chichester : John Wiley & Sons.
Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H. 1995. The knowledge-creating company : how Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. New York : Oxford University Press.
Nonaka, I., Toyama, R., & Konno, N. 2000. “SECI, ba, and leadership : a unified model of dynamic knowledge creation”. Long Range Planning, Vol. 33.
Norton, A. 1994. International Handbook of Local and Regional Government : A Comparative Analysis of Advanced Democracies. Cheltenham : Edwar Elgar.
Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the commons : the evolution of institutions for collective action.Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
Pierce, L.W., & Rust, K.L. 1991. “Government enterpises” dalam Peterson, J.E., & Stracota, D.R. (eds). Local government finance : concept & practices. Chicago : Government Finance Officers Association.
Premchand, A. 1999. “Public-private partnerships : implications for public expenditure management” dalam Mackintosh, M., & Roy, R. Economic decentralization and public management reform. Cheltenham : Edwar Elgar.
Prichard, C., Hull, R., Chumer, M., & Willmott, H., ed. 2000. Managing knowledge : critical investigations of work and learning. New York : St. Martin’s Press.
Schein, E. H. 1984. Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass publishers.
Scott, M.C. 2000. Reinspiring the corporation : the seven seminal path to corporate greatness.Chichester : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Shah, A. 1994. The Reform of intergovernmental fiscal relations in developing and emerging market economies. Washington : The World Bank.
Smith, B.C. 1985. Decentralization : the territorial dimension of the state. London : George Allen Unwin.
Stoker, G. 1991. the Politics of Local Government. 2nd edition, London : MacMillan Education Ltd.
Wilson, D., & Game, C. 1994. Local government in the United Kingdom. London : Mac Millan.
World Development Report, 1988. Public finance in development : an overview.
Zolingen, S.J. van, Streumer, J.N., Stooker, M. 2001. “Problems in knowledge management : a case study of a knowledge-intensive company”. International Journal of Training and Development (5 : 3).



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4 uncertainty in the business

4 uncertainty in the business
1. Clear Enough Future. Managers can develop a single forecasting quite appropriate for the development strategy.
2. Alternate Futures. At this level, the future can be described as a result of a number of alternative scenarios or diskret. Analysis can not identify the results that will appear, but can help determine the probability.
3. A Range of Futures. At this level, an area which may result in the future can be identified. Area defined by a certain number of key variables, but real results can be located anywhere along the area.
4. True ambiguity. At level four, the various dimensions of uncertainty interact to create environments that are virtual impossible to predict.
Discussion
Why the same two products, sold by two different companies, different results? A company making products that can be sold, not selling a product that can be made, therefore we need to identify customers and identify their needs. Thus, we can meet customers' needs. One of the failure of new products, is usually wrong because they recognize the needs of consumers. The company expects customers to be customers, so that there is continuity of purchase.
In fulfillment of consumer needs, we can not create a product to meet all needs. Product diversification needs to be done to serve all needs. Various efforts made to make the company's customers feel special. In addition to increasing sales is to build customer loyalty.
Companies must have a clear goal, so that those who run the organization know what you want can be achieved and the planning and implementation.
Simplification should be done to improve the efficiency of the company. Bureaucracy companies involved will not make the company efficient and costs arise that are not necessary. Besides bureaucracy impedes information flow in organizations.
Use of technology needed, but do not make us depending on the technology. The use of technology can also improve the efficiency of the company, for example, to store company files. Computer technology and accelerate the flow of information to assist in decision making.
Company's ability to manage information to predict the future, beneficial for the company to make a response back, for example, there is a change in consumer tastes. If the company can read this trend, it will be the opportunity for the company.
In decision making, need to have involvement from the subordinate so that the subordinate was involved responsible for implementing the decisions taken.
Companies need to determine the appropriate strategy to achieve the vision or purpose. Companies need to observe changes in the environment so quickly to maintain the benefits of competing with the other. Information flow so rapidly that with modern technology to support changes that occur.
The business environment is always changing, companies need the external environment and internal business environment. Thus the company can see what the threats, opportunities, strengths and weakness of the company. Something that is seen to be a threat for the company with the changes may be the opportunity, the opportunity will be a threat. This analysis is called SWOT analysis. With SWOT analysis of the company can immediately provide a response to the needs of consumers and maintain the market from competitors.

Conclusion
In the face of uncertain environment and it is always changing, companies need to develop a strategy that is capable of directing the company to the destination. In the environment that is not certain, the traditional approach in the planning strategy can be dangerous.
Uncertainty in the business environment can be divided into four levels, namely: a clear-enough future, alternate futures, a range of futures, and true ambiguity.
So that managers are able to develop the right strategy in the environment that is not certain, necessary instruments of analysis, including (starting from a tool for analysis of the level of uncertainty I):
o traditional strategies.
o decision analysis, option-valuation model, game theory.
o Research-latent demand, technology forecasting, scenario planning.
o introduction of analogy and pattern, model dynamic non-linear.

There are three strategic postures that can be selected by the company in the face of uncertainty, namely shaping, adapting, and reserving the right to play. There are three kinds of movements in the portfolio of action that can be used to implement a strategy that is big bets, options, and no-regrets moves.
In the uncertain environment that required a strategy that is not rigid, but can adapt to the changes that occur in the environment around the company, whether the environment in or outside the company.
reference :

Dow, Roger and Susan Cook, "Time to Turn On Your Organization", World Executive Digest, December 1997, p.26-30.

Courtney, Hugh, Jane Kirkland, and Patrick Viguerie, "Strategy Under Uncertainty", Harvard Business Review, November-December 1997, p.67-79.

 

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Time to Turn On Your Organization, Strategy Under Uncertainty


Facts
There are eight steps to achieve a successful organization, namely:
A. Build a strong base. Show the essence your business, and know your customers and their needs.
B. Making all consumers feel special. We can not make a product, offer a service or developing a relationship to satisfy all people.
C. Setting a high goal. A goal that will focus the will and mind employees.
D. Simplification. Simplification exempt employees, and increase efficiency.
E. Makes the technology as a means of assistance. Use technology to build personal relationships with customers and improving financial performance.
F. Measure with good, act fast. System that allows both organizations throughout not only can predict the future, but also can find it.
G. Encourage others to develop. Practices will spur people to develop: the head lease and the heart, through the study design.
H. Leading with circumspection. Here is how the leaders see themselves as resources for learning, aspirations, and motivation for other people: maintaining the value and correct yourself and all the people win.

In an environment that is not certain, managers need to apply the right strategy. Simple approach, in strategic planning is not appropriate anymore, may cause failure. In the uncertain environment required a different approach. It is rare that a manager does not know the strategic importance, even in the environment in the most uncertain. In fact, they usually can identify a range of potential or even a number of scenarios diskret.

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Environmental Marketing Toward Coastal Ecotourism as Regional Autonom Community Economics Activator

The phenomenal growth of global tourism has immediate and far reaching consequences for the natural and cultural heritage, as it directly links tourism activities with low impact use of the natural resources, environmental conservation and sustainable economic activities. One among many terms given to this form of tourism is ecotourism sectors. The rapidly growing ecotourism movement for coastal zone of tourism attraction, it can be beneficial to attract domestic tourists as well as international tourists. The study that investigate the nature of sustainable ecotourism hinges on the relationship among board classes of considered indicators, i.e. 

Ecological, Economic, Social and Institutional dimensions, taking into account the spirit of the 4th chapter 45th point of Rio+10 Johanesberg World Summit on Sustainable Development about “Sustainable Tourism”. afterwards the data will be applied to tree major interrelated strategic management activities: strategic analysis, strategy formulation, and strategy implementation. Additionally, the new science namely Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Environmental Management System are related to assessment, and the major of data analysis can use such ABC Surveys, Geographic Information System for Ecological, attitude research, evolutionary model, AIO and VALS typology for Social-Cultural impact, IO analysis and Multiflier for Economic impact, and Policy Response for Institutional side, followed by various conventional strategic matrix, Dynamic System, Cost-Benefit Analysis and this study contribution among others is Sustainable Tourism Strategic Management Matrix to explore strategic position, The special action which strong influence to this ecotourism industry is “Environmental Marketing”, and the investment and partnership to local Small and Medium sized Enterprises, and sustainopreneurs. 

Especially the “Environmental Marketing” which similar to “Green Marketing” and “Eco-Marketing” (Ecological Marketing) as a driving element towards sustainable management and ecotourism industry that are beginning to promote themselves ecotourist facilities, i.e., facilities that specialize in experiencing nature or operating in a fashion that minimize their environmental impact.

The result of the analysis will indicate that ecotourism factors simultaneously have positive and negative influence to the tourism sustainability, and the sustainable tourism can increase as to be an ecotourism strategic management, when the Indonesian Regional Autonomy constitution of 2001 to 2003 was put into effect. Therefore, the author recommends operational strategies. The interaction among government, private sector and the local commumities themselves and environmental marketing aplications to the concerned Sustainable Tourism Strategic Management is one of the conclusions

Rudy Aryanto P062024264 / S3 / PSL / IPB - DU Warnet

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The research of Regional Original Income (PAD) in the frame work territory autonomy implementation

This research mainly intends to analyze the role of Regional Original Income (PAD) in the frame work territory autonomy implementation in the city of Yogyakarta. The result is with the approach of bringing it into a relably material for arranging policy which directly points at the improvement of Regional Original Income as a realization of territory autonomy implementation.

The data used in this research is the secondary data which is in the form of Regional Budget (APBD) statistical variable, comprising regional revenue (SLPATL, regional original income, tax/non-tax sharing, contribution and financial support, development revenue) and regional expenditure (regional routine exependiture outside the official exepense, routine expense of regional income service) and Regional Original Income comprising regional tax, regional retribution, Regional-owned corporation (BUMD) profit, officials revenue, and other revenues. The data is taken from financial section, and Yogyakarta’s regional income service. The analysis method applied is descriptive statistical analysis.
The analysis, during the observation period started in the fiscal year of 1991/1992 until of 2000 results in the fact that the average contribution of Regional Income resources toward its total figure, orderly arranged in succession are 53.02% of regional tax, 36.58% of regional retribution, 4.87% of other revenues, 3.53% of Regional-owned Corporation, 1.99% of officials revenue.

Regional Original Income growth rate on the average is 14.76% and the highest growth rate on the average is peaked by the Regional-owned Corporation which lies whith the point of 27.15% followed by 22.19% of other revenue, 14,04 of regional tax, 13.96% of regional retribution. Fiscal Autonomy Level (DOF) as the measurement of regional capacity has a standard on the average of 32.96%. The Regional Routine Capacity Level (KRD) reaches the point of 119.15%. The administration performance of Regional Original Income collection which is measured according to effectiveness and efficiency level has figures of 102.62% of effectiveness level on the average and of 16.30% of efficiency level on the average.
in the frame work of territory autonomy implementation, it is said Regional Original Income plays an important role in financing adminitration implementation and regional development. Therefore, the effort to minimalize the dependece toward central government can be realized.


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The History of Hypodermic Needle Theory

Hypodermic Needle Theory is also known as the Magic Bullet Theory is a theory that considers the effects of mass media, social environment. From 1920, this theory is based on the strength of the mass media that have direct influence on it of the mass media. In 1940 and 1950 is considered a mass media has a very large change in the behavior of someone. As some of the things below: 
 increasing number of population (TV and Radio) 
 Spirituality industry to mass media with the number of ads and propaganda 
 Payne Fund focus on examining the influence of TV impressions on children 
 Hitler used mass media to unify the people behind the Nazi


Assumption

This theory explains that the media has a direct effect, fast and strong against the public. Mass media can influence a group of people with information on how to inject impression / voice / any posts / images are loaded so that it can achieve the desired goal. This theory put the audience as a passive public, so it can be said that mass media is dangerous. In accordance with a needle that is used hipodermik, mass media can easily "inject" the desired information to the head so the audience will respond as expected also.

Variable

 Mass Media
 information
 audience (passive)
 the desired response

Discussion
Assessment that the new Magic Bullet Theory is not accurate comes from a study in the selection of "The People's Choice," (Lazarsfeld, Berelson and Gaudet, 1944/1968). This project was conducted during the election Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1940 to determine voting patterns and the relationship between media and political behavior. The statement that this theory assumes that the audience is a passive and can not do anything wrong because it is considered that the audience is not passive. Audiences may also filter the information that you want to receive. As an example of a product ad, someone will not buy it directly though the product has been advertised in the mass media.

Example
On 30 October 1938 a radio broadcast in New Jersey a drama theater is being told that the alien invasion has occurred in the earth, and started from New Jersey. Siara is stopped immediately because it is dangerous because it can provoke people. But that news has been heard so many people, and in fact many people are affected by erita. Around 12 million people in the United States heard the broadcast and there are around one million people who are really seriously believe alien invasion has been implemented.


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The Sample of Recommendation/Reference Letter

LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION

06 June 2009

Dear Sir/Madam,

This letter of recommendation is written at the request of Mrs. Aneu ingriane to support her studies in master degree programme through the scholarship from The Embassy of the Republic of Turkey.
Mrs. Aneu was one of my students in the subjects of International law, international law of the sea, case study on international law, and also I guide her to accomplish her minor thesis. She has been active and showing her seriousness and commitment during her studies. In terms of her English proficiency, I feel certain that she can cope with the lectures she will get from the professors in Turkey, as well as her written works and oral discussion in the class room. In terms of her intellectual ability, I believe she can absorb the knowledge as she has proven herself during my lectures.
As a senior professor at Faculty of Law, University of Padjadjaran, I strongly recommend Mrs. Aneu's intention to continue her study at Turkey and hope that she will be given your favorable consideration.

Sincerely Yours,




Prof. Dr. Beny Simanjuntak, S.H. LLM.
Senior professor at Faculty of Law,
Padjadjaran University.




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The Public Policy Models

a. Institution Model ;
The process of policy making is derivasi from political science to emphasize a more traditional structure of the political process or behavior. This model does not measure the existence of democracy is not only through the representative institutions and elections, for example, but more than that, to emphasize how far the function of representative institutions, how far people can get the significance, how far people can choose without coercion, and so on.
Weakness that arises from this institutional model is be ignored environmental issues where policy is applied as the program came from outside the institutional policy can not be detected either by the model with this approach.

b. Approach System Model ;
This model there are three components, namely: Input, Process, Output. Initially, the demand, support, support from individuals and community groups, and resources that have an input that will affect the allocation of values by the authorities. And further demand and support will be absorbed by the political system to be converted for output, output in the form of policies. And then every decision which is the result of the political system output will affect the environment, this is where the environment will be affect claims that arise from the community itself.
The weaknesses of this approach is a model of a centralized focus on the actions undertaken by policymakers in this case is the government.

c. Elite Model;
In this model of social life is divided into two layers, namely the upper layer down. Where, under the layer with a very large amount as that set, while the top layer with a small amount, which is always set. Therefore, state policies will always reflect the values or a small group of people in power.
Source : Various Source

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Getting Everyone to Think Strategically, The Subversive Strategist, The Fall and Rise of Strategic Planning

The Fact
Nowadays, thinking that the CEO who is always involved in all decision-making has had a shifting, this is caused by a change in the economic, social, political, and technology. Now, the CEO will need to change the rules and framework of all that, especially for the future of the company.
In many companies, top managers monopoly on the strategy began to be used is reduced. Currently, the strategy has become the property of all members of the organization. Thus, the participation of all members of the company has become a very important thing for the company in achieving success. Necessary to instil an awareness in the mind of each member of what the company vision. Having the commitment and participation of each member organization will facilitate the implementation of company strategy. Enter the strategy of each member organization will assist the implementation of the company's vision.
There are many elements necessary to maintain the company's vision is always embedded in the mind of each member company, the company should have a strategic language, to keep the strategy simple and specific companies, to manage the participation of each member organization, the company motivates employees to always remember the vision and the CEO company's involvement .
An expert strategy against someone who is a subversive, say what are the things that must be a company that can compete with the well in the future. There are several steps that can be applied, namely: how to make a planning strategy looks different, where we will begin, whether the experience that encourages top managers choose the types of thinking strategies, focus on planning strategies should be adjusted with the resources available, the problems associated with the concept strategy can be seen in the vision of the company, can translate in the planning, how ideas are related to its core competence.

Discussion
In many organizations the top management often monopolize the making of strategy. However, these strategies or vision has become the property of all people. And to achieve the success of a strategy, understanding the need akan vision and organizational commitment, and participation in the planning process and implementation strategy. Having the participation of members of the organization does not reduce the responsibility of the CEO. Participation in the process of strategy also does not mean that the strategy will be an experiment in democracy in the company. In addition, the CEO also needs to set a vision and strategy emphasizes the participation strategy to achieve success.
CEO has a responsibility to define the various roles, where he was responsible to set the vision, strategy ensures acceptance in the organization, involving the board of directors, communicate vision, and ensure that the strategy remains relevant and updated.
When strategic planning is shown in the 1960s, the company leaders view as the one best way to do the planning and implementation to improve the competitiveness of each business unit. Planning system is expected to generate strategies and best stage for the implementation of the strategy instruction, so that the managers and business managers do not understand it wrong. However, as we know, the planning does not always work so, even now only a person who really understand the reason that strategic planning is different from the strategic thinking. Strategic planning is practiced as a strategic programming, development and integration is a strategy or vision that has been there.

The strategy should provide planners contributions up about the process of strategy rather than on the process. They can provide a formal analysis or raw data is needed in strategic thinking, as far as they do aim to expand the consideration of the issue of finding an answer is correct. The planners should act as a catalyst to support the making of strategy with the help and encourage managers to think in strategic, and they can also become the programmer strategy, helping to set a series of concrete steps needed to implement the vision.

Conclusion
Currently, in many organizations, strategy or vision is not only known by a few top managers, but the information is already owned by everyone. For the success of a strategy required the participation of all members of the organization both in the planning and implementation.
One of the ideas and strategies that simple SWOT analysis is useful. There are three types of company that is the rule, implementing, and scofflaw.
A strategic planning is not strategic thinking. Planning is about analysis. 're Thinking about is a strategic combination that involves intuition and creativity.
Strategies that actually requires the invention of a new, not a process that has been there. Strategy can not be made by the analysts, but they can help its development.
Strategic programming is not the way the best or a good way, managers do not always have to memprogram their formal strategy. Sometimes they must leave the strategy is flexible so that they can adapt to changes in the environment.

Referensi :

Hamel, Gary, "The Subversive Strategist", World Executive Digest, December 1995, p. 28, 30-34.

Mintzberg, Henry, "The Fall and Rise of Strategic Planning", Harvard Business Review, January-February 1994, p.107-114.

Tregoe, Benjamin B. and Peter M. Tobia, "Getting Everyone to Think Strategically", World Executive Digest, October 1995, p.40,42. 
  

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The exsistence of Syari’a regional law correlated with the regional autonomy regarding to the regional autonomy act number 32 year 2004

With the enactment of Act number 32 year 2004 that dealt with the arrangements of how should the local governments initiate their policies without any rigid control from their upper level government in order to create such appropriate policies to be implemented by each citizen. Accordingly, with the legalize constitution that confirmed local governments to do so; there are many phenomena that occur since the enactment of it. and to be mentioned here as well as the objection of this paper is the emerging of local syari’a regulation preserved as one of the regulations came out in a recent year. Many intentions are presented that it is so necessary to regulate local regulation based on syari’a concept. Proponents concerned and claimed that it will create the people tranquility, hence the Islamic concept implemented as they wanted. In other hand, many opponents also claimed the inconvenient of it in the case of its cause to harm human rights and people pluralities that existed in Indonesia. for that reason this paper will be deliberately talk about the essence of syaria regional law, moreover the paper also will deal with the use of “syari’a” word as the initial name for every regulation that based on syari’a, this matter commences an issue that will also be consulted. In accordance with the concept of local autonomy, the issue will be discussed in a way whether this regulation may become a good complement or may not interfere it.


In the way of a writing methodology, this paper will deal with a research type-approach of normative-juridical that coupled with analysis-description, the type which describes and analyzes the issues with provided many sets of rules.
In the last conclusion, the paper is answering the issues presented as mentioned above, namely, that the use of term “syaria” in many ways is not accurately proper because in the regulation that based on syari’a has a different term when its transformed into a legal state. Second conclusion that will be answered here is the fitting of regional syari’a law and the concept of local autonomy, indeed it has a suitable reason to conduct based on the sight of the aoutonomy concept because local governments are allowed to enact any regulation as long as that will initiate any development and also satisfies people needs. As our constitution stated and underlined the origin concept of autonomy, then in advance, the creation of regional syari’a law has met the basic requirement to be admitted as the branch regulation in a regional scope


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THE BASIC CONCEPT OF THE MOTIVATION

Motivation is the heart of the learning process. Because motivation is important in the learning process, the first task of the teacher's and most important is to build motivation or to what the students will learn by the student. Motivation not only the behavior, but also strengthen and direct behavior. Students are motivated in learning will show interest, enthusiasm and perseverance in learning that, without much depend on the teachers.

According to the experts motivation there are two general types of motivation, namely intrinsic motivation and ekstrinsik. Intrinsic motivation is the desire to act because of the incentive factors that come purely from within the individual self, and the purpose of action is involved in the action itself, not outside the action. Ekstrinsik with different motivations, namely the desire behave as a result of the stimulus from the outside or because the power from the outside. Destination behave is not involved in the behavior itself, but outside of that action.

In the process of learning, experience more intrinsic motivation to encourage students in learning. But not the means that the motivation ekstrinsik need to be avoided at all. Ekstrinsik motivation can provoke the occurrence of intrinsic motivation. Many students who are motivated ekstrinsik can be successful with in the study, as well as with students who are motivated intrinsic, as long as teachers can help them with that which is right in line with their needs. There are many ways that can be done by a teacher in the motivation of students in learning through the development ekstrinsik motivation, such as reward or disapprobation, build competition, give a gift or a punishment, and let the progress achieved by students. Each way has advantages-advantages and disadvantages-weakness own. Teachers must determine the most appropriate way so that the various weaknesses could be reduced or avoided altogether, and the forces that have developed and used as big.


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Second Award For This Month..One Lovely Blog Awards

Thx You So Much....for Dede Andro..who give me second Awards....For this month "One Lovely Blog Award"...
This Award, Important for me....to increase my motivation....
And his URL as Follow:

Dede Andro receive this award from : Lily and Mee Moe

This One Lovely Blog Award Rules :
- Accept the award, post it on your blog together with the name of the person who has granted the award, and his or her blog link.
- Pass the award to ten other blogs. Remember to contact the bloggers to let them know they have been chosen for this award
I like to pass on this Award to the following bloggers regardless of if they have it or not already.I want to give this award to my friends. Here they are:


To those who do not have this award, you are all welcome to grab it. Enjoy!

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At A1SURF.CO.cc, you make money online when you surf ads and visit websites. The process is easy! You simply visit our surf ads page and view websites for 30 seconds. You can earn even more by referring friends. You'll get paid $0.01 for each website you personally view and $0.01 for each website your referrals view. Payment requests can be made every day and are processed through PayPal. The minimum payout is $10.00.

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My Blogger Award - Friendship Chain Award 2009

I received this Friendship Chain Award from my friend, Dede Andro.Thanks for this award, i really happy to receive This award. And his URL as Follow:


He's a frequent visitor to my blog and is one who always like to include me in his list on Awards. For this reason, I would like to take this opportunity here to thank him again for including me in his Award receiving list. and I often give comments on the blog "dede andro"
Dede Andro received this Award from his dear blogger's friend "Therapy Home" and her url is as follows: http://lilyarbee.blogspot.com

Here, The New rules as follows :
1. Put the logo on your blog
2. Add a link to people who give this award
3. Tag your friends as much as possible.
I like to pass on this Award to the following bloggers regardless of if they have it or not already.
I want to give this award to my friends. Here they are:

Co-Single, Melyana, eri-communicator, Enduro-Indra,
Angga Webblog, Yustiawan, Resistencia,PSD Tutorial,
Semar Badra Naya, BoyJayaMultiBusiness, Moellife, E-Je

If you have received this award, please give to other people. Anyone who have not received this award, do not hesitate to take it, Keep This Friendship.


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Natural Vegetation and Wildlife In Asia

You are quite familiar with the natural vegetation of some climatic regions you have studied. You know that the natural vegetation in any region is largely dependent on temperature and rainfall, besides altitude and soil. Hence with such a diversity of climatic types, Asia is bound to have many vegetation types too. In fact, almost every known major climatic type and its corresponding vegetation occurs in Asia.
Indonesia, Malaysia and parts of Sri Lanka have an equational type of climate i.e., uniformly hot and wet throughout the year. Due to the heat and plentiful moisture, the vegetation grows abundantly and rapidly, creating impenetrable forests called evergreen Rain Forest called evergreen rain forests. The trees, like ebony, mahogany and rosewood, are tall with branches spreading wide at the top. There is a great variety of trees of various heights. These forests have been cleared from most of the coastal regions of these countries for plantations of rubber, coffe, coconut and cocoa.
India, South East Asia and parts of China have the typical Monsoon climate, distinct summer rain and a dry winter. Due to this dry winter, the forests here are less dense than those in the Equatorial region. They are the Monsoon forsts and here the vegetation is thick where the rainfall is heavy.
With a decrease in rainfall though, the forests thin out into scattered trees of acacia, and tall grasses scrub vegetation. Trees are mainly deciduous i.e. they shed their leaves in the dry winter season e.g., teak, sal, deodar. Much of these forests have been cleared for cultivation of various crops, especially rice. A variant of this is the warm temperate forest with valuable reserves of oak, camellia, magnolia, camphor, bamboo and mulberry.
Most of central and south West Asia have a desert type of climate i.e., hot summers and cool winters with scanty or hadly any rain. Due to lack of moisture, the vegatation consists of tough grass, thorny bushes and bulbous plants. This is the desert Vegetation –xerophytes. Wherever oases and rivers make irrigation possible, wheat and some dry weather crops are cultivated.
Southers siberia has a steppe type of climate i.e, warn summer, cold winters and a little rain. Due to scarcity of moisture and comparatively less heat, grass grows everywhere without trees to be seen. This is the steppe vegetation. Most of this vegetation has been cleared here to cultivate wheat and cotton on a large scale.


Part of Turkey, Syria, Lebanon and Israel, have a Mediterranean type of climate i.e , hot dry summers and mild west winters. In order to adapt to the hot, dry summers, the vegatation of these areas consists of trees and shrubs which have small. Waxy, dark leaves and deep roots. This type of vegetation is called Evergreen Mediterranean for esta. Large Areas of this vegetation have been cleared for fruit farming.
The central part of the Siberian plain has a cool temperate type of climate-short warm summers and long cold winters. Due to the cold and short summer season, the trees have thick barks and nnedle shaped leaves. This is the coniferous forest or Taiga with softwood trees like the spruce, fir, cedar, larch and pine. Large areas of forest have the same variety of trees and here lumbering is carried out commercially as the trees provide valuable timber.
The norhern strip of the Siberian Plain has the Tundra type of climate, i.e., very short mild summers and long frozen winters. The bare rocky surface of the plain is broken by patshes of mosses and lichens and short lived arctic flowers during the 2 to 3 summer months of the year. For the rest of the year, the surface remains ice bound.
Wildlife
The Asian continent with its varied vegetation has been the home of many species of birds and animals. The dense equatorial forests and the monsoon forests are inhited by tigers, monkeys, rhinoceroses, elephants, wild boar, deer, crocodiles, a variety of snakes and lizards and many birds and insects, all suited to this hot, wet habitat.
The elk, brown bear, wolf, lynx, rats and some wild cats are to be found in the coniferous forestys, though their numbers are fast depleting as they are being hunted and trapped for their furs and skins. The same applies to the steppe grasslands which once were the home for a variety of fast footed animals like the horse, deer and gazelle. These grasslands are being cleared, and the wildlife here is on the decline.
Yak in the Tibetan Plateau, and mules and camel in the desert belts, also constitute the Asian wildlife. To the morth, reindeer, Arctic fox and wolves inhabit the Tundra during the short summers but as winter approaches they migrate to the warmer south. (taken From Sampuran Jeet & Leela Sachdev-Macmillan India)

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Franchise in the food field in Indonesia

Trademarks: Turkish kebab Baba Rafi
Franchisor / Master Franchisee: PT. Baba Rafi Indonesia
Business Sector: Food typical middle east
Local / Foreign: Local
Year Established: 2003
Number of Branches: 300
Description:
Capital is only the beginning of RP. 10 Million burger or a cart. Now with business growing rapidly the main food kebab and western style food (hotdog and burger). Number of branches continue to grow each year. Strategy that is applied early enough powerful, that is choose the middle of the crowd and use the color light and colorful.

Trademarks: "Bakso Malang City" Cak Eko "
Franchisor / Master Franchisee: "Bakso Malang City" Cak Eko "
Business Sector: Food Cuisine
Local / Foreign: Local
Year Established: 2006
Number of Branches: 71
Description:
Until now this "Bakso Malang City" Cak Eko " , since early September 2008 in the franchise already has 71 outlets, and 3 own outlets and 68 franchisee owners. Speed development of the branch is supported by the strength of brand

Trademarks: Buana Bakery
Franchisor / Master Franchisee: PT. Candrabuana Suryasemesta
Business Sector: Bread Store
Local / Foreign: Local
Year Established: 2002
Number of Branches: 100
Description:
Companies that sell bread production started up in 1997. In 2002 Buana Bakery franchise opportunity to open the (franchise). Especially for this franchise system, the management in cooperation with the International Franchise Consultant from Singapore to create a franchise system and the appropriate professional. Buana Bakery have motoo "So Close, So good."

Trademarks: Crush Zone
Franchisor / Master Franchisee: Crush Zone
Business Sector: Food
Local / Foreign: Local
Year Established: 2005
Number of Branches: 6
Description:
Irwanto Puji, a former journalist and magazine editor in chief is a mobile food business is great. Crush Zone, as defined by the owner of the various cuisine. Puji not use specific strategies in the product. He only implement strategy price, cuisine and location to compete with competitors.

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Franchise Business, road to a successful business

Cite statistics, Lori Kiser-Block, Vice President FranCHoice, a business that was built using the franchise will more success  than build own business. Therefore, rapid growth of the franchise, no exception in indonesia. Even for Indonesia, already approaching the level "eforia".
So many problems that franchisor and franchisee in Indonesia that does not understand about the franchise, business franchise, so much destroyed, such as leaves in the dry season.

Every successful business and then in a franchise without the franchise know the gist of. This situation worsened with the prospective franchisee is "interested" to buy the franchise offered. then appears a new franchise with the smash franchise long run as a race (sprint). In a franchise so close that many disadvantaged. Reputation destroyed franchise, the franchisee has been losing money that be invested, workers lose their lives back. Although not as powerful in the United States, the company closed its franchise also reduce the contribution of real economic sector.
In the United States accounted for franchise companies 50% of retail sales overall. Franchise in the United States contribute to earnings per year around the U.S. $ 1 Billion.
In Indonesia, the opportunity to develop the company's of franchise extraordinary large. Population in Indonesia is one of the biggest in the world. This is an interesting market.

But none of the franchisor or the franchisee can guarantee that a certain join successful. "Lie!, if there is someone who can guarantee the franchisor to the prospective franchisee certain success." Many factors affect the success or not a business franchise, from the type of business, brand, franchisor and franchisee attitude to his support of the franchisor. Recognizing these factors determines a successful franchise business or not this is that we give to you.

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Nature of the nurse’s Work – Registered Nurse (RNs) work to promote health, prevent disease, and help patients cope with illness.

Registered Nurse (RNs) work to promote health, prevent disease, and help patients cope with illness. They are advocates and health educators for patients, families and communities. When providing direct patient care, they observe, assess, and record symptoms, reactions and progress I patients; assist physicians during surgeries, treatments and examinations; administer medications; and assist in convalescence and rehabilitation. RNs also develop and manage nursing care plans, instruct patients and their families in proper care, and help individuals and groups takes steps to improve or maintain their health. While State laws govern the tasks that RNs may perform, it usually the work setting that determines their daily job duties.
Hospital nurses form the largest group of nurses. Most are staff nurses, who provide bedside nursing care and carry out medical regimens. They also may supervise licensed practical nurses and nursing aides. Hospital nurses usually are assigned to one department, such as surgery, maternity, pediatrics, the emergency room, intensive care, or the treatment of cancer patients. Some may rotate among departments.
Office nurses care for outpatients in physicians offices, clinics, ambulatory surgical centers and emergency medical centers. They prepare patients for, and assist with, examinations; administer injections and medications; dress wounds and incisions; assist with minor surgery; and maintain records. Some also perform routine laboratory and office work.
Nursing care facility nurses manage care for residents with conditions ranging from a fracture to Alzheimer’s disease. Although they often spend much of their time on administrative and supervisory tasks, RNs also assess residents, health, develop treatment plans, and perform invasive procedures, such as starting intravenous fluids. They also work in speciality-care departments, such as long-term rehabilitation units for patients with strokes and head injuries.


Home health nurses provide nursing services to patients at home. RNs assess patients home environments and instruct patients and their families. Home health nurses care for a board range of patients, such as those recovering from illnesses and accidents, cancer and childbirth. They must be able to work independently and may supervise home health aides.
Public health nurses work in government and private agencies, including clinics, schools, retirement communities, and other community settings. They focus on populations, working with individuals, groups, and families to improve the overall health of communities. They also work with communities to help plan and implement programs. Public health nurses instruct such as preventive care, nutrition and childacre. They arrange for immunizations, blood pressure testing, and other health screening. These nurses also work with community leaders, teachers, parents, and physicians in community health education.
Occupational health nurses, also called “industrial nurses” provide nursing care at worksites to employees, customers and others with injuries and illnesses. They give emergency care, prepare accident reports, and arrange for further care if necessary. They also offer health counseling, conduct health examinations and inoculations, and assess work environments to identify potential or actual health problems.
Head nurses or nurse supervisors direct nursing activities, primarily in hospitals. They plan work schedules and assign duties to nurses and aides, provide or arrange for training and visit patients to observe nurses and to ensure that the patients receive proper care. They also may ensure that records are maintained and equipmemnt and supplies are ordered.
At the advanced level, nurse practitioners provide basic, primary healthcare. They diagnose and treat common acute illnesses and injuries. Nurse practitioners also can prescribe medications-but certification and licensing requirements vary by state. Other advanced practice nurses include “clinical nurse specialist, certified registered nurse anesthetists and certified nurse midwives. Advanced practice nurses must meet educational and clinical practice nurses must meet educational and clinical practice nurses must meet educational and clinical practice nurses must meet educational and clinical practice requirements beyond the basic nursing education and licensing required of all RNs.
Taken from partially from: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics –
EPN Jakarta


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What should be done if you have Hypertension

You should normally have your blood pressure measured every 3 to 5 years;you should also know what the reading was the last time it was measure, what the figures mean and weather your blood pressure is low or close to the range at which treatment might be recommended. It is important to steer a middle course between ignoring the possibility of hypertension and worrying too much about it. If however, you are taking the contraceptive pill or estrogens. You had better have your blood pressure checked more frequently.
Further investigation varies according to age and the need to make sure that a given case is either essential or secondary hypertension. To determine whether your heart has become enlarged, you have to undergo a course of X-ray examination. To check if you have any kidney problem you needs to get furher information about your kidney, your kidney ought to be X-rayed after a dye injection, a method known as intravenous urography (IVU), or an ultrasound scan of the kidneys may be performed.
Self-Help Tips
The problem of secondary hypertension will usually be resolved if and when the primary cause is satisfactory dealt with. In many cases, a thorough sel-examination of your weight, diet and lifestyle can lead to satisfactory lowering of the blood pressure without the use of drugs. In particular :
1. If you smoke, you have to give it up, or at least to cut down as much as possible. Although cigarette smoking is not a cause of hypertension , people who already have hypertension and who smoke have a greater risk of developing complications (malignant hypertension). Furthermore, there is a link between smoking and coronary artery disease, especially in people under 45 years of age. Since we know that the chances of heart trouble are increased by both cigarettes and high blood pressure, why not halve the risk instead of doubling it?

2. If you are overweight, you’d better choose a reducing diet to lose weight, stick to it until you reach a suitable weight for your age, sex and height and then you must stay there. Again, there is o firm evidence that hypertension is kept under control by weight reduction alone but slin people are hypertensive less often than those who are overweight, and slim people suffer less from certain serious diseases that are linked hypertension.
3. You’d better use less salt and give up salt-rich foods such as salami, pickles and salted fish.
4. You must try to make your work schedule and recreation less demanding avoid strenuous exercise and learn to avoid crises. A person who is always pressing ahead to the next objective, talks rather than listens and constantly looks at hir or her watch is at greater risk of all heart and circulatory diseases.
5. You’d better drink alcohol in moderation or not at all. Some people maintain that small quantities of alcohol help to lower blood pressure. There is no hard evidence that this is so . furthermore, alcohol adverse effects on the brain and liver.
6. Mild hypertension can often be treated without drugs, by relaxation techniques such as mediation , yoga, biofeedback. Before tryng relaxation therapy, you should consult yor doctor . he or she may be able to advise you about where to go for training;whichever relaxation method you choose, it must be used daily (just as patients being treated with drugs must take their medication every day). Yout doctor also needs to monitor your blood pressure to make sure that relaxation sure that relaxation theraphy has lowered it to a safe level.


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Gigi My Facebook - Free Mp3 Download - Ungu Hampa Hatiku

1. Free MP3 Download Gigi My facebook+Chord Guitar Click Here
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Patient Diagnostic with Angina Pectoris(Diagnosa Pasien dengan Angina Pectoris-Patienten mit Angina pectoris-Diagnostik)

Angina is not a disease in its own right but is the name given to pain arising when the muscular wall of the heart becomes temporarily short of oxygen.
What are the symptoms?
The main symptom is pain in the centre of the chest. The pain can spread to the throat and upper jaw, he back and the arms (mainly the left one). It is a dull, heavy, constricting pain, which characteristically appears during exercise and fades when exercise stops. Less commonly , the pain may occur only In the arms, wrists or neck but you can recognize it as angina if you know that it arises whenever you are abnormally active or excited and disappears after the activity or excitement has stopped. It is often made worse by cold weather, walking into a wind or after a heavy meal. Additional symptoms that can often nausea and dizziness. There are, however, other causes of central chest pai, such as spasm in the muscles of the esophagus, and tests may be needed to establish the diagnosis with certainly.

What test should be done?
After examining you, the doctor may take a blood specimen for tests to identify thyroid disorder,anemia or other possible causes of chest pain. It may be advisable to find the level of lipids (fats) in your blood, I which case the blood must be taken in the morning before you have eaten, a urine test will determine whether or not you have diabetes (diabetics are more susceptible to heart disease).
There are numer of test that can be performed to get more information bout a patent’s angina. The first is a electrocardiogram (ECG). This is normally done whilst the patient is suffering from a chest pain.
There is also something called a stress test which is done while the patient walks on a treadmill so that it is possible to see how the heart is performing when the patient exercises.

Diagnostic test such as X-ray examination may be included. X-rays of the heart that is taken before and after exercise can show if an area of the heart is not getting enough blood. If this happens it may mean that arteries supplying blood to the heart are blocked . another test is cardiac catheterization. This is a test in which a long thin tube is inserted through the artery in an arm or a leg and then guided into the heart. Dye is then injected into the arteries around the heart is then x-rayed to see if any of the arteries are blocked.
In addition, both a CT scan and an MRI scan may occasionally be used to obtain clear pictures of the heart structure. Your doctor may arrange for some or most of these tests to be carried out , depending on his or her assessment of the probable severity of your coronary heart disease, your age and the type of treatment most likely to be suitable for you. However, in general , extensive testing is recommended only for patients who are willing to udergo surgery, if it should prove to be necessary.
Modern treatment for angina is very effective but the powerful drugs used have to be taken exactly as prescribed, and you may need to consult your doctor about upleasant side-effects they may produce, such as dizziness or lack of energy (EPN Publisher Jakarta)

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Juvenile-onset diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes

Diabetes was first recorded in ancient Egypt in 1500 BC. The word “diabetes” is greek and means ‘fountai’ referring to the large amounts of urine produced by the disease in its early stages. Diabetic urine produced by the disease in its early stages. Diabetic urine smells sweet and its alternative name-‘mellitus’ comes from the Latin word for ‘honey’. Doctor can often find ususpected diabetes by finding sugar in urine tests. The urine of diabetic attracts ants looking for sugar and early methods of detecting diabetes included testing the urine for sweetness.
There are two major forms of diabetes

Type 1 (insulin-independent) diabetes known as juvenileonset diabetes is caused by a failure of the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. It can begi at any age but is most common in younger people. The Insulin treatmen, a severe and dangerous disturbance of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism can occur within days or even hours.

Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes or maturity-onset diabetes, usually affects people over the age 40 years . In most, the body is resistant to insulin, in association with obereating and hence obesity, and the prancreas cannot produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance.this failure usually worsens with age. The mechanism underlying this failure are not understood but there are strong genetic (hereditary) and environmental factors. The major manifestation is of high levels of blood glucose and disturbance of blood-fat levels. There are strong associations with high blood pressure and heart disease.

The risks
People with type 1 diabetes risk developing a metabolic acidosis (ketoacidosis), which can progress to unconsciousness. Ketoacidosis is caused by too little insulin, allowing fat breakdown and the production of poisonous acids-ketones. This may happen before the diagnosis of diabetes, as a result of the stress or infections of ant kind or major surgery, or from neglect of self-treatment.

The commonest risks are diabetic eye damage (diabetic retinopathy, kidney damage (nephropaty and nerve damage (neuropathy). The nerve damage can give rise to serious foot problems and impotence.
People with type 2 diabetes and those with Type 1 diabetes with poor glucose levels or kidney damage, are at particular risk of damage to the arteries. This can result in stroke , angina and heart attacks, or leg pain on walking , and gangrene, according to the arteries affected. Many such people also have high blood pressure and abnormal blood fat levels.

How to treat the diabetic and you will require lifelong treatment . this is largely self administered, so its effectiveness depends mainly on you.
Many people with diabetes learn how to measure their blood sugar values at home;others rely on urine testing. Whichever method you choose, you should maintain a close watch on how your diabetes responds to diet and other treatments.
Type 1 diabetes A diabetic person have to retain diet and daily injections of insulin to replace the missing hormone. Many people with established good control on an older insulin have continued to use the preparation that suits them.

Insulin can be taken only by injection; any insulin taken by mouth is destroyed by digestive juices before it is absorbed into the bloodstream. You will be shown how to use a syringe or pen injector to inject yourself just under the skin of your thigh , arm or abdomen. Most people learn how to do this efficiently within a few days. Parents will need to administer the injections to their diabetic children.

Type 2 diabetes A good diet alone can control this form or diabetes in one-third of affected people, and is a cornerstone of management in the rest. The aim is to control calorie intake in order to reduce the energy load on the body and to lose weight, to reduce intake of free sugar in order to smooth out absorption of glucose into the blood and to lower the intake of the fats most associated with damage to the arteries. Inpractice , this means following the type of healthy eating diet advised for everyone else but applying it more vigour. Avoidance of high calorie, high fat foods (for example, fried foods, biscuits, cakes, nuts, pastries, red meat and chocolate) is important with controlled intake of sugar-containing drinks and confectionery. Higher-fibre food, fruit and fresh vegetables are desirable and can protect against arterial disease.

The long term prospects
If the patient treat his diabetes sensibly, he can expect to lead a full and healthy life. However, patient with insulin dependency may find shift work problematic, as it can interrupt the regularity of diet and injections. Also, the diabetics must not work at heights, or drive public service or heavy-goods vehicles, because of the risk that they might become.

Hypoglycaemic
Even if the diabetics develop complications, the effect of these can be minimized by regular medical check-ups and hence early treatment. (taken from EPN Consultant Jakarta)

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TONSILITIS AND PHARYNGITIS IN CHILDREN

The two tonsils at the back of the throat are part of the ring of lymph glands that guard the entrance to the respiratory and digestive systems. Very small at birth, they enlarge gradually, reaching maximum size at age 6 or 7 years. Thereafter, they shrink but do not disappear, as adenoids do.

The tonsils are relatively large at early school age, when the respiratory tract begins to be attacked by a variety of new microbes; the tonsils are thought to act to keep the microbes away from the lower respiratory tract. Both tonsilitisand pharyngitis are bacterial or viral infections of the back of the throat that cause soreness, and they are often associated-particularly in children. Sore throats may also be part of a more generalized respiratory infection, such as influenza.

What are the symptoms?
Tonsilitis starts suddenly with sore throat and difficulty in swallowing;within a few hours, the child becomes feverish and may seem quite ill. The painful irritation in the throat makes some children often complain of stomach pain. Glands on either side of the neck and in the angle of the jaw may swell and become tender. They can be felt as small, knob-like protuberances. Sometimes , the swellings persist for several weeks after the main symptoms have subsided.

How common is the problem?
Virtually every child has one or more attacks of tonsillitis which is very contagious. Frequent attacks of tonsillitis, which is very contagious. Frequent attacks usually lessen after age of 7 years as resistance develops.

What are the risks?
Before the advent of antibiotics , tonsillitis could lead to rheumatic fever or some form of glomerulonephritis, but such complications are rare today.

What should be done?
Try the self-help measures recommended in the next paragraph. If the child is clearly uncomfortable, consult your doctor, who will examine the child’s tonsils and determine whether the condition is present.

What is the treatment?
Self-help the child should be kept indoors 9but not in bed, unless he or she request otherwise) in a warm-not overheated-room. Symptoms can usually be relieved by giving paracetamol and plenty of fluids, which should be sipped regularly. Don’t force the child to eat or drink. If he or she asks for cold desserts to cool the throat, there is no harm in giving these. Frequent sponging of the face with tepid water may comfort the child . in most cases, children with tonsillitis responds swiftly to these measures.

Professional help the doctor will probably prescribe an antibiotic drug; ensure your child takes the full course as instructed. The tonsillitis should clear up in a few days.
If attacks of tonsillitis are so severe and frequent that they affect general health, then surgical removal of the tonsils may be the only answer. This operation was performed frequently in the past but most doctors today recommend it only as a last resort. Severe sore throats with similar symptoms when the tonsils have already been removed can clearly not be tonsillitis and are more likely to be pharyngitis.(taken from EPN Consultant Books

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I can not guarantee that the information on my blog is 100% correct