Definition of Marketing & Service

Definition of Marketing
Marketing according to William J. Stanton, Michael J. Etzel and Bruce J. Walker (Djaslim Saladin, 2001:2) is a total system of business activities which are designed to distribute goods which can satisfy wants and reach the target as well as the objective of organization.

Another definition from American Marketing Association (Lamb et al, 2001:6), marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and meet organization goal.

Marketing according to Philip Kotler and Gary Amstrong (2001:7) is a social process and managerial that can enable individuals and groups reach their needs through the creation and exchange of products and value with other people.

Definition of Service
Definition of service according to Murti Sumarni (2002:17) is an activity or an advantage which can be given by a party to another party which is mostly intangible and can not affect ownership, and its production or is not related to any tangible product.”

A service is also an activity or series of activities of more or less intangible nature that normally, but not necessarily, take pace in interactions between the customer and service employees and/or physical resources or goods and/or system of the service provider, which are provided as solutions to customer problems (Gronroos, 1990).

According to Philip Kotler (1997) service is an action or an activity which can be offered by a party to another party, which is basically intangible and can not affect any ownership. Service may be related to tangible product or intangible product.

In addition, Philip Kotler and Amstrong (1996:383) explains definition of service as an activity or an advantage which is given by one party to another party which is basically intangible and can not effect any ownership.

Furthermore, Zeithamal (1996) give a limitation of service by stating that service is all economic activities whose output is not a physical product or a construction is generally consumed at the time it is produced, and provides added value in forms (such as convenience, amusement, comfort or health).

On the other hand, Steinhoff (1979:113) further states that the raw material of services is people. The main material of service is in fact people; nevertheless, there are many other supporting factors from the raw material of service such as advanced tools, clean, secured, comfortable physical environment, accurate, advanced, and up to date technology and service.

Lamb et. al. (2001:483) also mention that service has several unique characteristics, which differ it from the others, namely intangible, inseparability, heterogeneity, perishability.

Handi Irawan D (2002:53) also states that one important characteristic of service is it is produced and consumed at the same time. Therefore, customers’ satisfaction on service depends on interaction process or time when costumers and service provider meet.

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