Teachers use two primary methods to grather information about heir pupil’s, instruction, and classroom climate. The first method involves the use of paper-and pencil evidence –gatherring techniques and the second involves the use of observasional evidence-gathering techniques. Each method is relied on heavily by teachers to help them obtain the asessment information they need to make classroom decisions.
The term paper-and-pencils techniques refers to assessment methods in wich pupils write down their responses to questions or problems. It doesn’t matter whether pupils use pencils, pen, crayon, or makers to record ther answers, the technique is still referred to as paper-and pencils asessment. When pupil’s take a test, complete a written homework assignment, turn in a written report, draw a picture, or finish a worksheet, they are providing paper-and pencils evidence to the teacher. The teacher reviews the test, homework, report, drawing, or worksheet to grather assessment information about each pupils progress, leaning, and misunderstandings of the class as a whole.
Paper-and-pencils evidence-gathering techniques are of two general forms: supply and selections. Supply, or production, techniques require the pupils to construct a response to a question. An essay question, for example, forces the pupil to produce a response in order to answer the question. A short answer or “fill-in-the-blank” question also requires the pupil to construct an answer. Book reports, journal entires, projects, and the like are all examples of supply-type paper and pencils evidence-gathering techniques.

Some paper-and-pencil procedures require the pupil to select the correct answer from a list of presented options. Multiple choice, true-false, and matching questions are called selection techniques because, as the name implies, the pupils respons to each question by selecting the answer from among a set of provided choices. Notice that a selection-type question provides the maximum degree of control for the person who writes the question, since that person specifies both the question and the choice from wich pupils must select their answer. In supply-type questions, the person who writes the question has control only over the question it self; responsibility for supplying a response to the question resides with the pupils answering the question. This difference has implications for constructing and scoring the two type questions.
Observations is the second major evidence –gathering approach classroom teachers use to collect asessment data. As the term suggests, observation involves looking at or watching pupils carry out some activity. It also includes hearing pupils speak and discuss. When pupils mispronounce words in oral reading, interact in groups, speak out in calss, bully other pupils lose their concentration, have puzzled looks on their faces, patiently wait their turn, raise their hands in the class, dress shabbily, and fail to sit still for more than three minutes, teachers become aware of these behavior through observation. Much of the information that is essential for minute-to-minute decision making in classroom comes from teacher observation, not from paper-and-pencil assessment. Wich are time-consuming to administer and score.
Thus, Ms. Lopez observed that Monroe often squinted when she was writing on the blackboard and decided to move him closer to the front of the room so he could see the blackboard better. She notice Randy with his head on the desk and a grimace on his face and sent him to the school nurse for examination. During the language lesson she saw blank looks on her pupil’s faces and got no raised hands when she asked questions. This observation led her to stop and review the lesson from the previous day. Ms. Lopez observed Ralph being rude to another teacher, an action that earned Ralph no recess for a day. Each of these examples shows how teacher observation is used to obtain assessment data that lead to classroom decisions.
Almost all classrooms are set up so that the teachers and pupil’s face on another. The teachers desk faces the pupil’s desks. During instruction, the teacher faces the pupil’s, whether it is in large or small group instruction. This mean that teachers spend a great deal of the school day observing pupils. Some of the teacher’s observations are planed observations, as when pupil’s read aloud in reading group or present an oral report to the class. In such situations the teacher structures the classroom environment so that he or she can look for a particular set of behavior the pupil’s is expected to demonstrate. For example, for reading aloud the teacher might be watching and listening for clear pronunciation of words, changing voice tone to emphasize important points, periodically looking up from the book while reading, and so forth. Because the observation is palnned, the teacher has time to identify in advance of the observation the particular beahior the pupils wil be expected to perform and set up the classroom to be certain those beahior occur.
Other observation are unplanned, or informal, observation-as when teacher sees Bill and Leroy talking while they should be working, notices the pained expression on a pupil’s face when a classmate mades fun of his clothes, or observer the pupil’s fidgeting and looking out the window during the science lesoon. These unplaned observation prompt and inform the questions such as “what do I do now?” or “is everything going as I planned?” the teacher does not plan these observations in the same way that observation of reading aloud or giving an oral report are planned. Unplanned observations make more of idiosyncratic, unsystematic happenings in the classroom wich the teachers sees, mentally record, and interprets.
The fact the teachers and their classes are in a confined space, facing and interacting with one another for from one to six hours per day, means that the teacher in a position to observe a great deal of pupil’s behavior, appearance, and reactions. These observation, both planned and unplanned, provide assessment information for classroom decisions that the teacher makes on a minute-to-minutes basis.
Paer-and-pencils techniques and observation complement each other in the classroom. Try to imagine the classroom decision making without any observational information about pupil’s apprearances reactin, behavior, and interaction, conversely, try to imagine what it would be like if no paper-and pencil information about written expression, local organization, or content mastery were permissible. Bot types of information are needed to carry out meaningfyll assessment in classroom, so a teacher’s matery of both evidence gathering approaches is important.
Although the paper-and-pencil and observationa techniques are the primary methods by wich teachers grather classroom assessment dat, supplementary methods are laso available to them. Helpful information can be obtained from the pupil’s prior tachers, school, nurse, and parents. Teachers routinely consult previous teachers to corroborate or reinforce current observations. Parents frequently volunteer information and respond to the teacher queries.
(i dont know the source , he2x:so i call this, from various source)

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