More About GPS ( Global Postioning System)

GPS On Wikipedia :

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a U.S. space-based global navigation satellite system. It provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to worldwide users on a continuous basis in all weather, day and night, anywhere on or near the Earth.
GPS is made up of three segments: Space, Control and User. The Space Segment comprises 24 to 32 satellites in Medium Earth Orbit and also includes the boosters required to launch them into orbit. The Control Segment is comprised of a Master Control Station, an Alternate Master Control Station, and a host of dedicated and shared Ground Antennas and Monitor Stations. The User Segment is comprised of hundreds of thousands of U.S. and allied military users of the secure GPS Precise Positioning Service, and tens of millions of civil, commecial and scientific users of the Standard Positioning Service (see GPS navigation devices). GPS satellites broadcast signals from space that GPS receivers use to provide three-dimensional location (latitude, longitude, and altitude) plus precise time.
GPS has become a widely used aid to navigation worldwide, and a useful tool for map-making, land surveying, commerce, scientific uses, tracking and surveillance, and hobbies such as geocaching and waymarking. Also, the precise time reference is used in many applications including the scientific study of earthquakes and as a time synchronization source for cellular network protocols.
GPS has become a mainstay of transportation systems worldwide, providing navigation for aviation, ground, and maritime operations. Disaster relief and emergency services depend upon GPS for location and timing capabilities in their life-saving missions. The accurate timing that GPS provides facilitates everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids. Farmers, surveyors, geologists and countless others perform their work more efficiently, safely, economically, and accurately using the free and open GPS signals.

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GPS is a navigation radio system, satellite-based operated by the Department of Defense (DOD – Department of Defense) government of the United States. GPS provides services to each user can determine position in 3-dimensional coordinates, as well as speed and time, in any weather, anywhere in the globe with a better accuracy than other navigation radio technologies that exist today.

GPS is divided into 3 parts areas: space area (GPS satellites), Control area (monitor and control station), and the user area.

Space area consists of 24 satellites that operate at 6 circular orbit, with an average altitude of 20.200km on earth. . Satellite orbit and its distribution is determined in such a way that each point on the earth’s surface can be observed by at least 6 satellites operating reply. These satellites continuously transmit position and time data to GPS users around the world.

Control area is a Master Control Station (MCS) located in Colorado Springs. MCS supported five monitor stations and 3 antennas scattered in several places on earth. Monitoring stations monitor the GPS satellites and collect information from data transmitted by the satellite, then sent to the Master Control Station. Master Control Station calculates the satellite’s orbit very carefully. The results are uploaded to update the satellite navigation message.

Users are: a GPS users. To be able to use the GPS information, each user must use a GPS receiver by a layman, this receiver is known as “GPS”, which actually is one area of the GPS system itself.

The basic principle of GPS is a satellite ranging. GPS users to determine its position on the surface of the earth, by measuring their distance to the satellites in the sky. The satellites act as precise reference points. It takes at least 4 measurements to 4 different satellite reply to get the position, velocity and time.

How does GPS work?

GPS Receiver detection and recording signals from satellites. Then the receiver displays the position of the user, complete with time and speed. Some receivers on the market that can display additional information such as distance and direction to the destination by GPS users.

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